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  • A representative image showing germinal centers in the tonsil of a 7-year-old child. Palatine tonsils were collected 8 days after the child received the live attenuated influenza vaccine. Paraffin embedded section of the tonsil was stained for Bcl6 (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue).  (See Lartey et al, pp 21–32). Volume 221, Issue 1
    Volume 221, Issue 1
    1 January 2020
    Pages 1–168
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    A representative image showing germinal centers in the tonsil of a 7-year-old child. Palatine tonsils were collected 8 days after the child received the live attenuated influenza vaccine. Paraffin embedded section of the tonsil was stained for Bcl6 (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). (See Lartey et al, pp 21–32).

  • On the cover: ZO-1, a tight junction protein (red) and E-cadherin, an adherens junction protein (green) visualized on human trophoblast (JAR) cell monolayers 12 hours post-treatment with West Nile Virus (WNV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) (5 µg/mL). Merge signal (yellow) showing colocalization between ZO-1 (red) and E-cadherin (green) on WNV NS1-treated monolayers indicating that the integrity of cell-cell contacts is maintained; in contrast, treatment with Zika virus NS1 led to mis-localization of these two proteins, resulting in increased permeability (Puerta-Guardo et al., 2020, 313–24). Nuclei (blue) stained with Hoechst. Magnification (20X). Scale bar= 10 µM.  (See Puerta-Guardo et al, pp 313–24). Volume 221, Issue 2
    Volume 221, Issue 2
    15 January 2020
    Pages 169–335
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    On the cover: ZO-1, a tight junction protein (red) and E-cadherin, an adherens junction protein (green) visualized on human trophoblast (JAR) cell monolayers 12 hours post-treatment with West Nile Virus (WNV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) (5 µg/mL). Merge signal (yellow) showing colocalization between ZO-1 (red) and E-cadherin (green) on WNV NS1-treated monolayers indicating that the integrity of cell-cell contacts is maintained; in contrast, treatment with Zika virus NS1 led to mis-localization of these two proteins, resulting in increased permeability (Puerta-Guardo et al., 2020, 313–24). Nuclei (blue) stained with Hoechst. Magnification (20X). Scale bar= 10 µM. (See Puerta-Guardo et al, pp 313–24).

  • On the cover: A minimum spanning tree depicts 13  parasite haplotypes sequenced at the merozoite  surface protein-1 (MSP1) locus in Plasmodium vivax  isolates from Cambodia. The number of nucleotide  differences (dots) between each haplotype variant  (the nodes) are shown for all the haplotypes found  in the population, with the size of nodes denoting  the frequency of that variant in the population.  (See Balasubramanian et al, pp 428–37). Volume 221, Issue 3
    Volume 221, Issue 3
    1 February 2020
    Pages 337–493
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    On the cover: A minimum spanning tree depicts 13 parasite haplotypes sequenced at the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1) locus in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Cambodia. The number of nucleotide differences (dots) between each haplotype variant (the nodes) are shown for all the haplotypes found in the population, with the size of nodes denoting the frequency of that variant in the population. (See Balasubramanian et al, pp 428–37).

  • DIC image of a methanol-fixed thick smear of MACS-enriched Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes from a cross-sectional survey in Papua New Guinea. Gametocytes were labelled by immunofluorescent staining with a-pfs16 (green) and a-pfg377 (red) antibodies. a-pfs16 stains female and male gametocytes, a-pfg377 is female specific. The proportion of male gametocytes was calculated as the difference of a-pfs16- and a-pfg377-labelled gametocytes. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue).  (See Gruenberg et al, pp 598–607). Volume 221, Issue 4
    Volume 221, Issue 4
    15 February 2020
    Pages 495–679
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    DIC image of a methanol-fixed thick smear of MACS-enriched Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes from a cross-sectional survey in Papua New Guinea. Gametocytes were labelled by immunofluorescent staining with a-pfs16 (green) and a-pfg377 (red) antibodies. a-pfs16 stains female and male gametocytes, a-pfg377 is female specific. The proportion of male gametocytes was calculated as the difference of a-pfs16- and a-pfg377-labelled gametocytes. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). (See Gruenberg et al, pp 598–607).

  • Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli  (EHEC) O157:H7 specifically colonizes the human  large intestine. EHEC O157:H7 pathogenesis  involves effacement of intestinal microvilli, intimate  bacterial attachment to the host enterocyte  membrane, polymerized actin and other cytoskeletal  component accumulation, and pedestal structure  formation beneath the adherent bacteria. The cover  art shows the confocal microscopy of attaching and  effacing lesion formation in HeLa cells by an EHEC  O157:H7 ƒ¢OI-19 mutant. HeLa nuclei and bacteria  were stained red with propidium iodide, and HeLa  cell actin cytoskeleton was stained green, using  fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin. Pedestals  are observed as punctate green structures that are  typically associated with bacterial cells. Original  magnification, 63~. Scale bar, 10 ƒÊm.  (See Liu et al, pp 820.9). Volume 221, Issue 5
    Volume 221, Issue 5
    1 March 2020
    Pages 681–855
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    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 specifically colonizes the human large intestine. EHEC O157:H7 pathogenesis involves effacement of intestinal microvilli, intimate bacterial attachment to the host enterocyte membrane, polymerized actin and other cytoskeletal component accumulation, and pedestal structure formation beneath the adherent bacteria. The cover art shows the confocal microscopy of attaching and effacing lesion formation in HeLa cells by an EHEC O157:H7 ƒ¢OI-19 mutant. HeLa nuclei and bacteria were stained red with propidium iodide, and HeLa cell actin cytoskeleton was stained green, using fluorescein isothiocyanate-phalloidin. Pedestals are observed as punctate green structures that are typically associated with bacterial cells. Original magnification, 63~. Scale bar, 10 ƒÊm. (See Liu et al, pp 820.9).

  • Pseudocolored scanning electron micrograph depicting colonization of human threedimensional cervical epithelial cells (magenta) with polymicrobial cocktail (gold) consisting of prevalent bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, and Sneathia amnii.  (See Gardner, pp 983–8). Volume 221, Issue 6
    Volume 221, Issue 6
    15 March 2020
    Pages 857–1029
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    Pseudocolored scanning electron micrograph depicting colonization of human threedimensional cervical epithelial cells (magenta) with polymicrobial cocktail (gold) consisting of prevalent bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, and Sneathia amnii. (See Gardner, pp 983–8).

  • Volume 221, Issue Supplement_1
    Volume 221, Issue Supplement_1
    15 March 2020
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  • Histopathology of lungs from  Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected C3HeB/  FeJ mice treated with pravastatin adjunctive  therapy (90 mg/kg) in combination with the firstline  anti-tubercular regimen (rifampin, isoniazid,  pyrazinamide and ethambutol) given once daily  (5 days/week) at human-equivalent doses  for 8 weeks (hematoxylin and eosin stain, 2x  magnification). Approximately 25% of the  pulmonary parenchyma is consolidated or  replaced by mixed inflammation, which consistd  of lymphocytes and macrophages. Adjacent to the  lumen of a mainstem bronchus, there is a large  reniform granuloma, which consists of a necrotic  center lined by epithelioid macrophages and  lymphocytes with a thin fibrous capsule. There is  multifocal hemorrhage within alveoli and bronchi.  (See Dutta et al, pp 1079–87). Volume 221, Issue 7
    Volume 221, Issue 7
    1 April 2020
    Pages 1031–1204
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    Histopathology of lungs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected C3HeB/ FeJ mice treated with pravastatin adjunctive therapy (90 mg/kg) in combination with the firstline anti-tubercular regimen (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) given once daily (5 days/week) at human-equivalent doses for 8 weeks (hematoxylin and eosin stain, 2x magnification). Approximately 25% of the pulmonary parenchyma is consolidated or replaced by mixed inflammation, which consistd of lymphocytes and macrophages. Adjacent to the lumen of a mainstem bronchus, there is a large reniform granuloma, which consists of a necrotic center lined by epithelioid macrophages and lymphocytes with a thin fibrous capsule. There is multifocal hemorrhage within alveoli and bronchi. (See Dutta et al, pp 1079–87).

  • Volume 221, Issue Supplement_2
    Volume 221, Issue Supplement_2
    1 April 2020
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  • Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria grown  in embryonated chicken eggs, reacted with human  immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies and stained by  using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody  (IFA) technique. The IFA assay is the reference  serological method for detecting antibodies  to spotted fever group Rickettsia species and  represents the primary laboratory method for  confirming cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever  and other spotted fever rickettsioses in the United  States. Contemporary increases in background  seroprevalence, as described by Straily et al. in this  issue, could influence greatly recent interpretation  of national surveillance data for these infections.  (See Straily et al, pp 1371–8). Volume 221, Issue 8
    Volume 221, Issue 8
    15 April 2020
    Pages 1205–1386
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    Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria grown in embryonated chicken eggs, reacted with human immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies and stained by using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique. The IFA assay is the reference serological method for detecting antibodies to spotted fever group Rickettsia species and represents the primary laboratory method for confirming cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever rickettsioses in the United States. Contemporary increases in background seroprevalence, as described by Straily et al. in this issue, could influence greatly recent interpretation of national surveillance data for these infections. (See Straily et al, pp 1371–8).

  • Volume 221, Issue Supplement_3
    Volume 221, Issue Supplement_3
    15 April 2020
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  • Histological analysis of the prostate  after ZIKV infection. This figure shows disruption of  the prostate cellular architecture with evidence of  hyperplasia and loss of typical columnar structure  three weeks after Zika virus infection of a C57BL/6J  mouse.  See Halabi et al, pp 1506–17). Volume 221, Issue 9
    Volume 221, Issue 9
    1 May 2020
    Pages 1387–1566
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    Histological analysis of the prostate after ZIKV infection. This figure shows disruption of the prostate cellular architecture with evidence of hyperplasia and loss of typical columnar structure three weeks after Zika virus infection of a C57BL/6J mouse. See Halabi et al, pp 1506–17).

  • Gonococcal NHBA binding  to human cervical epithelial cells.  Confocal fluorescent images (4X magnification,  extended focus) of recombinant NHBA from  Neisseria gonorrhoeae localising on the cell surface  of human cervical epithelial cells. Actin shown in  red (Phalloidin stain), nuclear DNA in blue (DAPI  stain) and NHBA in green (anti-NBHA antibody).  (See Semchenko et al, pp 1612–22). Volume 221, Issue 10
    Volume 221, Issue 10
    15 May 2020
    Pages 1567–1742
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    Gonococcal NHBA binding to human cervical epithelial cells. Confocal fluorescent images (4X magnification, extended focus) of recombinant NHBA from Neisseria gonorrhoeae localising on the cell surface of human cervical epithelial cells. Actin shown in red (Phalloidin stain), nuclear DNA in blue (DAPI stain) and NHBA in green (anti-NBHA antibody). (See Semchenko et al, pp 1612–22).

  • On the cover: Histopathology from the placenta of  a pregnancy with antenatal Zika virus exposure,  delivered at 35 weeks gestation. This crosssectional  view of intermediate villi demonstrates  stromal fibrosis and Hofbauer cell proliferation and  hyperplasia. The Hofbauer cell is a large placental  macrophage with a dark-staining nucleus and  vacuolated cytoplasm. A normal part of the villous  stroma, these cells can undergo proliferation and  hyperplasia in the presence of congenital infections  and villitis of unknown etiology.  (See Sobhani et al, pp 1838–45). Volume 221, Issue 11
    Volume 221, Issue 11
    1 June 2020
    Pages 1743–1917
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    On the cover: Histopathology from the placenta of a pregnancy with antenatal Zika virus exposure, delivered at 35 weeks gestation. This crosssectional view of intermediate villi demonstrates stromal fibrosis and Hofbauer cell proliferation and hyperplasia. The Hofbauer cell is a large placental macrophage with a dark-staining nucleus and vacuolated cytoplasm. A normal part of the villous stroma, these cells can undergo proliferation and hyperplasia in the presence of congenital infections and villitis of unknown etiology. (See Sobhani et al, pp 1838–45).

  • Volume 221, Issue Supplement_4
    Volume 221, Issue Supplement_4
    1 May 2020
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  • Volume 221, Issue Supplement_5
    Volume 221, Issue Supplement_5
    15 June 2020
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  • Confocal microscopy showing expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1, red) in neurons (beta III tubulin, green). Nuclei of all cells are in blue. Trpv1 protein is expressed by sensory nociceptive neurons, a specialized type of neurons that sense noxious stimuli  including infection with the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. These neurons are critical to coordinate host immune responses to C. rodentium: their selective ablation significantly increases bacterial burden and delays clearance.  (See Ramirez et al, pp 1978–88). Volume 221, Issue 12
    Volume 221, Issue 12
    15 June 2020
    Pages 1919–2086
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    Confocal microscopy showing expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1, red) in neurons (beta III tubulin, green). Nuclei of all cells are in blue. Trpv1 protein is expressed by sensory nociceptive neurons, a specialized type of neurons that sense noxious stimuli including infection with the enteric bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. These neurons are critical to coordinate host immune responses to C. rodentium: their selective ablation significantly increases bacterial burden and delays clearance. (See Ramirez et al, pp 1978–88).

  • DIC image of paraformaldehyde (PFA)-  fixed Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (RH strain)  inside a Vero cell labelled by immunofluorescent  staining with a-TgSABP1 (red) and a-SAG1 (green)  specific antibodies. SAG1 is a mark protein  expressed on the tachyzoite surface. Yellow colour  shows the overlapping of the two molecules on the  surface of the two molecules.  (See Xing et al, pp 126–35). Volume 222, Issue 1
    Volume 222, Issue 1
    1 July 2020
    Pages 1–170
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    DIC image of paraformaldehyde (PFA)- fixed Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (RH strain) inside a Vero cell labelled by immunofluorescent staining with a-TgSABP1 (red) and a-SAG1 (green) specific antibodies. SAG1 is a mark protein expressed on the tachyzoite surface. Yellow colour shows the overlapping of the two molecules on the surface of the two molecules. (See Xing et al, pp 126–35).

  • Ileocolic intussusception as the  presenting symptom of primary enteric varicellazoster  virus infection in a 7-month old infant:  synaptophysin-positive enteric ganglion cells and  nerve fibers of the myenteric plexus.  Immunohistochemistry for synaptophysin stains a  group of ganglion cells and thin nerve fibers from  the Auerbach myenteric plexus red. The ganglion  cells may harbour VZV in the acute phase of the  infection.  (See Windster et al, pp 305–8). Volume 222, Issue 2
    Volume 222, Issue 2
    15 July 2020
    Pages 171–342
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    Ileocolic intussusception as the presenting symptom of primary enteric varicellazoster virus infection in a 7-month old infant: synaptophysin-positive enteric ganglion cells and nerve fibers of the myenteric plexus. Immunohistochemistry for synaptophysin stains a group of ganglion cells and thin nerve fibers from the Auerbach myenteric plexus red. The ganglion cells may harbour VZV in the acute phase of the infection. (See Windster et al, pp 305–8).

  • The DiD-labeled exosomes collected from Enterovirus A71-infected intestinal organoids were added to RD cells, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression of viral protein at 6 h post-treatment.green color: Enterovirus A71, red color: DiD-labeled exosomes, blue color: nucleus (See Huang et al, pp 456–69). Volume 222, Issue 3
    Volume 222, Issue 3
    1 August 2020
    Pages 343–519
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    The DiD-labeled exosomes collected from Enterovirus A71-infected intestinal organoids were added to RD cells, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression of viral protein at 6 h post-treatment.green color: Enterovirus A71, red color: DiD-labeled exosomes, blue color: nucleus (See Huang et al, pp 456–69).

  • Artist: Tom DiCesare Volume 222, Issue Supplement_1
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_1
    1 August 2020
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    Artist: Tom DiCesare

  • Volume 222, Issue Supplement_2
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_2
    15 August 2020
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  • Inflammatory pathways play  critical role in immunity to infectious diseases.  Inflammation is a dynamic process that involves  intricate relationships between soluble factors and  activated cells, leading to coordinated production  of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors  in other to reestablish tissue homeostasis. The  complex interactions between a diverse range  of inflammatory markers could be accessed by  network analysis based on Spearman correlation  matrices. In the figure, we examined the correlation  network of concentrations of inflammatory markers  in cord blood from neonates presenting with  microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection  from Brazil. Each circle represents a biomarker.  Cytokines are displayed in red color whereas  chemokines are shown in grey and growth factors  in white. Red connecting lines represent positive  correlations while blue lines infer negative  interactions. Line color intensity is proportional to  strength of correlation (rho value). The size of each  circle is proportional to the number of statistically  significant correlations (rho value >±0.5 with  p-value <0.05) involving a given biomarker  (See Vinhaes et al, pp 670–80). Volume 222, Issue 4
    Volume 222, Issue 4
    15 August 2020
    Pages 521–703
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    Inflammatory pathways play critical role in immunity to infectious diseases. Inflammation is a dynamic process that involves intricate relationships between soluble factors and activated cells, leading to coordinated production of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in other to reestablish tissue homeostasis. The complex interactions between a diverse range of inflammatory markers could be accessed by network analysis based on Spearman correlation matrices. In the figure, we examined the correlation network of concentrations of inflammatory markers in cord blood from neonates presenting with microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection from Brazil. Each circle represents a biomarker. Cytokines are displayed in red color whereas chemokines are shown in grey and growth factors in white. Red connecting lines represent positive correlations while blue lines infer negative interactions. Line color intensity is proportional to strength of correlation (rho value). The size of each circle is proportional to the number of statistically significant correlations (rho value >±0.5 with p-value <0.05) involving a given biomarker (See Vinhaes et al, pp 670–80).

  • Histopathological analysis showing  image of haematoxylin and eosin–stained  kidney sections (200× magnification) from mice  systemically infected with Acinetobacter baumannii  AB5075 gamma-glutamyl transferase mutant  ggt::Tn. A significant decrease in glomerular  leukocyte infiltration was recorded in comparison to  wild-type AB5075-infected group  (See Elhosseiny et al, pp 871–9). Volume 222, Issue 5
    Volume 222, Issue 5
    1 September 2020
    Pages 705–881
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    Histopathological analysis showing image of haematoxylin and eosin–stained kidney sections (200× magnification) from mice systemically infected with Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 gamma-glutamyl transferase mutant ggt::Tn. A significant decrease in glomerular leukocyte infiltration was recorded in comparison to wild-type AB5075-infected group (See Elhosseiny et al, pp 871–9).

  • Disseminated fusariosis in a  neutropenic patient with acute leukemia, courtesy  of Dr George Viola, MD Anderson Cancer Center,  Houston, TX Volume 222, Issue Supplement_3
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_3
    1 September 2020
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    Disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with acute leukemia, courtesy of Dr George Viola, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

  • Hematoxylin & Eosin-stained lung  tissue section of an immunosuppressed with  cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate BALB/c  mouse, infected intranasally with Aspergillus  fumigatus conidia and treated with an immune  checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-1 monoclonal  antibody), day 4 post-infection. Hyphal invasion is  seen, surrounded by a dense leukocyte infiltrate,  predominantly polymorphonuclear cells, consonant  with the finding that anti-PD-1 therapy enhances  the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and  neutrophil-attracting chemokines in the lungs of  infected mice  (See Wurster et al, pp 989–94). Volume 222, Issue 6
    Volume 222, Issue 6
    15 September 2020
    Pages 883–1066
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    Hematoxylin & Eosin-stained lung tissue section of an immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate BALB/c mouse, infected intranasally with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and treated with an immune checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody), day 4 post-infection. Hyphal invasion is seen, surrounded by a dense leukocyte infiltrate, predominantly polymorphonuclear cells, consonant with the finding that anti-PD-1 therapy enhances the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil-attracting chemokines in the lungs of infected mice (See Wurster et al, pp 989–94).

  • Volume 222, Issue Supplement_4
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_4
    15 September 2020
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  • Lung histopathology of a female  cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) (2–3  years) with A(H7N9) virus infection at 3 days  post-infection (HE staining). Alveolar spaces  contain edematous exudate and inflammatory  infiltrates comprising neutrophils and monocytes/  macrophages, showing the progressed lung  inflammation.  (See Fukuyama et al, pp 1155–64). Volume 222, Issue 7
    Volume 222, Issue 7
    1 October 2020
    Pages 1067–1244
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    Lung histopathology of a female cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) (2–3 years) with A(H7N9) virus infection at 3 days post-infection (HE staining). Alveolar spaces contain edematous exudate and inflammatory infiltrates comprising neutrophils and monocytes/ macrophages, showing the progressed lung inflammation. (See Fukuyama et al, pp 1155–64).

  • Alana Mermin-Bunnell, watercolor on paper, 2020 Volume 222, Issue Supplement_5
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_5
    1 October 2020
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    Alana Mermin-Bunnell, watercolor on paper, 2020

  • A trimer of the hemagglutinin (HA)  protein structure for the original influenza H3N2  vaccine viral isolate A/Bethesda/55/2015 (HK14-  like, left) and A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (HK14, right)  are shown on modeled H3 crystal structures (PDB:  4WE8) using Chimera software (UCSF). The receptor  binding site is shown in cyan and the N158, T160  glycosylation site (using H3 numbering) is shown  in red with a simple carbohydrate attached on  the HK14-like H3. Following passage through hen  eggs, the H3 trimer of the HK14 virus lost this  glycosylation site at the T160K position, marked in  red, dramatically altering its immunogenicity and  antigenicity during the 2017-18 influenza season.  (See Ursin et al, pp 1371–82). Volume 222, Issue 8
    Volume 222, Issue 8
    15 October 2020
    Pages 1245–1416
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    A trimer of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein structure for the original influenza H3N2 vaccine viral isolate A/Bethesda/55/2015 (HK14- like, left) and A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (HK14, right) are shown on modeled H3 crystal structures (PDB: 4WE8) using Chimera software (UCSF). The receptor binding site is shown in cyan and the N158, T160 glycosylation site (using H3 numbering) is shown in red with a simple carbohydrate attached on the HK14-like H3. Following passage through hen eggs, the H3 trimer of the HK14 virus lost this glycosylation site at the T160K position, marked in red, dramatically altering its immunogenicity and antigenicity during the 2017-18 influenza season. (See Ursin et al, pp 1371–82).

  • Volume 222, Issue Supplement_6
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_6
    15 October 2020
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  • New indirect immunofluorescence  pattern on rat triple tissue sections corresponding  to cross-reactive autoantibodies detected after  COVID-19 disease. Image shows cross-reacting  serum antibodies bound to gastric gland cells and  revealed with anti-human immunoglobulins (anti-  IgG/A/M) conjugated with FITC (green). Cell nuclei  were stained with DAPI (blue).  (See Schiaffino, et al, pp 1453–7). Volume 222, Issue 9
    Volume 222, Issue 9
    1 November 2020
    Pages 1417–1579
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    New indirect immunofluorescence pattern on rat triple tissue sections corresponding to cross-reactive autoantibodies detected after COVID-19 disease. Image shows cross-reacting serum antibodies bound to gastric gland cells and revealed with anti-human immunoglobulins (anti- IgG/A/M) conjugated with FITC (green). Cell nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). (See Schiaffino, et al, pp 1453–7).

  • Credit for cover image goes to Dr Louis Bont and Dr Koos Korsten. Volume 222, Issue Supplement_7
    Volume 222, Issue Supplement_7
    1 November 2020
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    Credit for cover image goes to Dr Louis Bont and Dr Koos Korsten.

  • Macaques were exposed to a high titre of SARS-CoV-2 via combined transmission routes.  In their pulmonary lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia with endotheliitis (mononuclear and PMN leukocytes infiltrates within the intima along the lumen of many vessels, oedema of vessel, and focal haemorrhage) was observed.  (See Koo, et al, pp 1596–600). Volume 222, Issue 10
    Volume 222, Issue 10
    15 November 2020
    Pages 1581–1758
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    Macaques were exposed to a high titre of SARS-CoV-2 via combined transmission routes. In their pulmonary lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia with endotheliitis (mononuclear and PMN leukocytes infiltrates within the intima along the lumen of many vessels, oedema of vessel, and focal haemorrhage) was observed. (See Koo, et al, pp 1596–600).

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